How to do this in Flutter?

Flutter and dart cheat sheet

Init

flutter create my_project

Specify organisation name

flutter create --org com.yourorg your_project

Healthcheck

flutter doctor

Hello World

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
    runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Hello world!',
      home: Scaffold(
        body: Center(
          child: Text('Hello world'),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Stateless Widget

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class Greeter extends StatelessWidget {
  Greeter({Key key  this.name}) : super(key: key);

  final String name;

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      child: Text('Hello, $name'),
    );
  }
}

Required and default props

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class SomeComponent extends StatelessWidget {
  SomeComponent({
     this.foo,
    this.bar = 'some string',
  });

  final String foo;
  final String bar;

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      child: Text('$foo $bar'),
    );
  }
}

Stateful Widget

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class WidgetWithState extends StatefulWidget {
  
  _WidgetWithStateState createState() => _WidgetWithStateState();
}

class _WidgetWithStateState extends State<WidgetWithState> {
  int counter = 0;

  increment() {
    setState(() {
      counter++;
    });
  }

  decrement() {
    setState(() {
      counter--;
    });
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      children: <Widget>[
        FlatButton(onPressed: increment, child: Text('Increment')),
        FlatButton(onPressed: decrement, child: Text('Decrement')),
        Text(counter.toString()),
      ],
    );
  }
}

Combining props and state

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class SomeWidget extends StatefulWidget {
  SomeWidget({ this.fruit});

  final String fruit;

  
  _SomeWidgetState createState() => _SomeWidgetState();
}

class _SomeWidgetState extends State<SomeWidget> {
  int count = 0;

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      child: Text('$count ${widget.fruit}'),
    );
  }
}

class ParentWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
        child: SomeWidget(fruit: 'oranges'),
    );
  }
}

Lifecycle hooks

class _MyComponentState extends State<MyComponent> {
  
  void initState() {
    // this method is called before the first build
    super.initState();
  }

  
  void didUpdateWidget(MyComponent oldWidget) {
    // this method IS called when parent widget is rebuilt
    super.didUpdateWidget(oldWidget);
  }

   didChangeDependencies() {
    // called when InheritedWidget updates
    // read more here https://api.flutter.dev/flutter/widgets/InheritedWidget-class.html
    super.didChangeDependencies();
  }

  
  void dispose() {
    // called after widget was unmounted from widget tree
    super.dispose();
  }
}

Android Ink effect

InkWell(
  child: Text('Button'),
  onTap: _onTap,
  onLongPress: _onLongPress,
  onDoubleTap: _onDoubleTap,
  onTapCancel: _onTapCancel,
);

Detecting Gestures

GestureDetector(
  onTap: _onTap,
  onLongPress: _onLongPress,
  child: Text('Button'),
);

Loading indicator

class SomeWidget extends StatefulWidget {
  
  _SomeWidgetState createState() => _SomeWidgetState();
}

class _SomeWidgetState extends State<SomeWidget> {
  Future future;

  
  void initState() {
    future = Future.delayed(Duration(seconds: 1));
    super.initState();
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return FutureBuilder(
      future: future,
      builder: (context, snapshot) {
        return snapshot.connectionState == ConnectionState.done
            ? Text('Loaded')
            : CircularProgressIndicator();
      },
    );
  }
}

Platform specific code

import 'dart:io' show Platform;

if (Platform.isIOS) {
  doSmthIOSSpecific();
}

if (Platform.isAndroid) {
  doSmthAndroidSpecific();
}

Hide status bar

import 'package:flutter/services.dart';

void main() {
    SystemChrome.setEnabledSystemUIOverlays([]);
}

Lock orientation

import 'package:flutter/services.dart';

void main() async {
  await SystemChrome.setPreferredOrientations([
    DeviceOrientation.portraitUp,
  ]);

  runApp(App());
}

Show alert

showDialog<void>(
  context: context,
  barrierDismissible: false,
  builder: (BuildContext context) {
    return AlertDialog(
      title: Text('Alert Title'),
      content: Text('My Alert Msg'),
      actions: <Widget>[
        FlatButton(
          child: Text('Ask me later'),
          onPressed: () {
            print('Ask me later pressed');
            Navigator.of(context).pop();
          },
        ),
        FlatButton(
          child: Text('Cancel'),
          onPressed: () {
            print('Cancel pressed');
            Navigator.of(context).pop();
          },
        ),
        FlatButton(
          child: Text('OK'),
          onPressed: () {
            print('OK pressed');
            Navigator.of(context).pop();
          },
        ),
      ],
    );
  },
);

Check if dev

bool isDev = false;
assert(isDev = true);

if (isDev) {
    doSmth();
}
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class FirstScreen extends StatelessWidget {
  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Center(
      child: RaisedButton(
        child: Text('Go to SecondScreen'),
        onPressed: () => Navigator.pushNamed(context, '/second'),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class SecondScreen extends StatelessWidget {
  void _pushSecondScreen(context) {
    Navigator.push(context, MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => SecondScreen()));
  }

  
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Column(
      children: <Widget>[
        RaisedButton(
          child: Text('Go back!'),
          onPressed: () => Navigator.pop(context),
        ),
        RaisedButton(
          child: Text('Go to SecondScreen... again!'),
          onPressed: () => _pushSecondScreen(context),
        ),
      ],
    );
  }
}

void main() {
  runApp(MaterialApp(
    initialRoute: '/',
    routes: {
      '/': (context) => FirstScreen(),
      '/second': (context) => SecondScreen(),
    },
  ));
}

Arrays

final length = items.length;

final newItems = items..addAll(otherItems);

final allEven = items.every((item) => item % 2 == 0);

final filled = List<int>.filled(3, 42);

final even = items.where((n) => n % 2 == 0).toList();

final found = items.firstWhere((item) => item.id == 42);

final index = items.indexWhere((item) => item.id == 42);

final flat = items.expand((_) => _).toList();

final mapped = items.expand((item) => [item + 1]).toList();

items.forEach((item) => print(item));

items.asMap().forEach((index, item) => print('$item, $index'));

final includes = items.contains(42);

final indexOf = items.indexOf(42);

final joined = items.join(',');

final newItems = items.map((item) => item + 1).toList();

final item = items.removeLast();

items.add(42);

final reduced = items.fold({}, (acc, item) {
  acc[item.id] = item;
  return acc;
});

final reversed = items.reversed;

items.removeAt(0);

final slice = items.sublist(15, 42);

final hasOdd = items.any((item) => item % 2 == 0);

items.sort((a, b) => a - b);

items.replaceRange(15, 42, [1, 2, 3]);

items.insert(0, 42);

Make http request

dependencies:
  http: ^0.12.0
import 'dart:convert' show json;
import 'package:http/http.dart' as http;

http.get(API_URL).then((http.Response res) {
    final data = json.decode(res.body);
    print(data);
});

Async Await

Future<int> doSmthAsync() async {
  final result = await Future.value(42);
  return result;
}

class SomeClass {
  method() async {
    final result = await Future.value(42);
    return result;
  }
}

JSON

import 'dart:convert' show json;

json.decode(someString);
json.encode(encodableObject);

json.decode returns a dynamic type, which is probably not very useful

You should describe each entity as a Dart class with fromJson and toJson methods

class User {
    String displayName;
    String photoUrl;

    User({this.displayName, this.photoUrl});

    User.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json)
      : displayName = json['displayName'],
        photoUrl = json['photoUrl'];

    Map<String, dynamic> toJson() {
      return {
        'displayName': displayName,
        'photoUrl': photoUrl,
      };
    }
}

final user = User.fromJson(json.decode(jsonString));
json.encode(user.toJson());

However this approach is error-prone (e.g. you can forget to update map key after class field was renamed), so you can use json_serializable as an alternative

Add json_annotation, build_runner and json_serializable to dependencies

dependencies:
  json_annotation: ^2.0.0

dev_dependencies:
  build_runner: ^1.0.0
  json_serializable: ^2.0.0

Update your code

import 'package:json_annotation/json_annotation.dart';

part 'user.g.dart';

()
class User {
  String displayName;
  String photoUrl;

  User({this.displayName this.photoUrl});

  // _$UserFromJson is generated and available in user.g.dart
  factory User.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) {
    return _$UserFromJson(json);
  }

  // _$UserToJson is generated and available in user.g.dart
  Map<String, dynamic> toJson() => _$UserToJson(this);
}

final user = User.fromJson(json.decode(jsonString));
json.encode(user); // toJson is called by encode

Run flutter packages pub run build_runner build to generate serialization/deserialization code

To watch for changes run flutter packages pub run build_runner watch

Read more about json and serialization here

Singleton

class Singleton {
  static Singleton _instance;

  final int prop;

  factory Singleton() =>
    _instance ??= new Singleton._internal();

  Singleton._internal()
    : prop = 42;
}

Debounce

Timer _debounce;

if (_debounce?.isActive ?? false) _debounce.cancel();
_debounce = Timer(const Duration(milliseconds: 500), () {
    someFN();
});
ToC